EPI programme: An excellent success for prevention of communicable diseases in Bangladesh

Md. Darul Islam1, Hossain Sahid Kamrul Alam2, Md. Rafiqul Islam3
Infections are responsible for the majority of loss of life in children. In middle of the
twentieth century most of the communicable diseases had been eradicated from
America and Western Europe. Migrating people have been spreading the diseases
from one geographic region to another, even in underdeveloped countries. To prevent
the spread of of such communicable diseases, WHO introduced EPI (Expanded
Programme on Immunization) in 1977 at Alma-Ata (the capital of Kazakhstan at
present in former Soviet Union) for the underdeveloped countries. Subsequently
Bangladesh has launched EPI programme. Recently vaccination against Hepatitis
B and H. Influenzae have been introduced in vaccination programme .The success
in EPI programme decreased the mortality and morbidity of the vaccine preventable
diseases. Government of Bangladesh continues EPI programme to combat the
infectious diseases and thus, to reduced the infant mortality rate, for which
Bangladesh is appreciated recently by United Nation. In Bangladesh, immunization
coverage percentage in1990 was OPV3 69%, BCG - 86% , DTP3 - 69%, MCV1 - 65%
In 2008 OPV3 - 95%, BCG - 98%, DTP3 - 95%, MCV1 (Measles containing vaccine)
89%. From report of Valid Coverage Evaluation Survey 2009 (Bangladesh),
immunization coverage was BCG – 99%,OPV3 -93%, Measles -83%. In Bangladesh
fully immunization coverage is 75.2%, whereas in Pakistan fully immunization
coverage is 50% and immunization coverage in India in different provinces are
75%, 58%, 57% and 56%. DTP3 coverage in Bangladesh in 2009 was 94% which is
much more higher compared to other countries including many developed countries
i.e. Australia (92%), Canada (80%), Denmark (89%) and so on. After launching EPI
programme, Bangladesh achieved an excellent success for prevention of
communicable diseases.
Key Words : EPI programme, prevention, communicable diseases

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